Blood Glucose Monitor
The current non-invasive blood glucose monitoring methods can be roughly divided into
Determination of blood substitutes and micro-osmosis
Blood substitutes use body fluids such as saliva, sweat, tears, and urine instead of blood to measure the glucose concentration in it. The biological three-electrode can be used to collect sweat, tears, saliva and other body fluids, analyze and transmit the data, and obtain real-time information on the pH value of sweat and the content of blood sugar, lactate, sodium/potassium ions, calcium ions, and heavy metals.
First, a beam of light emitted by the light-emitting diode is irradiated on the test paper treated with saliva, and after being reflected, it is received by the photodiode. The color of the test paper will change in depth with the content of salivary amylase in the saliva. Photodiodes convert the received light of different intensities into currents of different magnitudes. The instrument has relatively large system noise and is still far from clinical application.
Another micro-osmosis method uses reverse ion osmosis to measure the glucose concentration of the tissue fluid in the skin, and this technology will cause certain damage to the skin. Strictly speaking, it is a minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring technology.
Biosensing technology is currently mainly mature in the field of heart rate measurement such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG). In the field of blood glucose monitoring, biosensor methods are mainly divided into bioimpedance method, optical polarimetry and subcutaneous sensor method.
The law of optical rotation is based on the stable optical rotation characteristics of glucose, and the blood sugar concentration of the human body can be obtained by measuring the deflection angle of the transmitted light. At present, this field is less involved.
Spectroscopy and metabolic conservation
Optical detection has become the most promising detection method due to its convenience, painlessness, high speed and high precision in principle. Spectroscopy includes microwave, Raman, and near-infrared spectroscopy.
Near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has become the most popular field of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring due to its advantages of simple operation and low cost. However, this method still has problems such as serious interference of human physiological tissues, strong time-varying physiological background, and individual differences. Methods require back-end data processing, algorithms, big data, and other processes. .
Blood glucose monitor trends
At this stage, non-invasive blood glucose testing has gradually become the mainstream. Compared with POCT and CGM, non-invasive blood glucose testing does not require puncturing the skin to collect blood, which avoids the pain of wounds. Especially for people who need frequent blood sugar testing, it is an effective method to effectively prevent follow-up problems such as wound stinging and infection.
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